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虚拟语气

1) 概念
   虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。

2) 在条件句中的应用
   条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。

16.1 真实条件句


  真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。
 
  时态关系
句型: 条件从句    主句
   一般现在时   shall/will + 动词原形
 If he comes, he will bring his violin.

典型例题
 The volleyball match will be put off if it ___. 
A. will rain  B. rains  C. rained  D. is rained
 答案B。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。

注意:
1) 在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表示将来,该用shall, will.
 (错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.
 (对) If you leave now, you will never regret it.
 2) 表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。

16.2 非真实条件句


1)时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。
a.  同现在事实相反的假设。
句型 : 条件从句     主句
    一般过去时   should( would) +动词原形
  If they were here, they would help you.

b.  表示于过去事实相反的假设。
句型: 条件从句      主句     
   过去完成时    should(would) have+ 过去分词
  If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.  
  The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful. 
  If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going.


  If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it.
  含义:He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.
  If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress.
  含义: He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress. 

c.  表示对将来的假想
 句型:  条件从句       主句
     一般过去时      should+ 动词原形
     were+ 不定式     would + 动词原形
     should+ 动词原形
 If you succeeded, everything would be all right.
 If you should succeed, everything would be all right.
 If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.


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